the louvre pyramid , why and what for?
the louvre isan older building housing all the paintngs , so why do the feature the glas pyramid theres nothing in it right ????????// and its a sculture model not a painting ?????????
@ jorge , whats la defense , as a stand alone work the pyramid is good but in front of a building thats a work of art in its self
Well, I think if was commissioned by the President of France in the mid 80’s to solve the problem of how to deal with the great number of people flowing in and out without lines or crowding. Maybe the glass idea was to save on energy for lighting? It would be interesting to learn if there were other ideas proposed other than the glass pyramid. The main thing I guess is that it works to handle tons of traffic and there is no confusion or doubt where the entrance is.
That’s my guess.
The following four questions are asked and answered by LearnSpeakThai.com:
If you are convinced that you would like to try and learn the language, then have a look at their two-volume Speak Isaan Thai.
There is also another product listed at either link that is called Speak Like a Thai: Northeastern Dialect (Isaan) v. 5 — the Isaan Region of Thailand is, of course, the northeast of Thailand.
The following paragraphs are notes from a book called Phya Khankhaak, the Toad King: A Translation of an Isan Fertility Myth in Verse by Wajuppa Tossa. I have painstakingly transcribed them here to illustrate the barren state of the written Isaan language or dialect:
5. Usually Isan palm-leaf manuscripts are recorded in either Tham or Thai noi script. Tham was an ancient script used to record Buddhist scriptures and non-Buddhist texts from the original Pali versions. Thai noi was another ancient script used to record Isan secular literature. Tham and Thai noi scripts, in essence, are Isan scripts. Presently, only a few elderly people and a handful of learned Buddhist monks can read these texts.
6. Phya Khankhaak (Vientiane, Laos: The National Library of Laos, 1970). The name of the author or scribe does not appear in this book. It is likely that the book was transcribed from a palm-leaf manuscript written in ancient Thai noi script. This Vientiane version of Phya Khankhaak is in modern Lao script, which was developed from the Thai noi script. Thawat Punnothok mentioned in Regional Literature (Bangkok: Odeon Store, 1982), p. 171, that both the Thai noi and Lao scripts were developed from Sukhothai script. The Thai noi script in Isan has not been changed or developed because of the replacement of language system by the mainstream Thai script from central Thailand. However, the Thai noi script in Laos has undergone changes both in terms of consonant and vowel forms since the colonization of Laos by the French government.
7. The late Phra Ariyanuwat was a prominent Buddhist monk in Isan who realized that Isan language and literature have been fading. Few elderly people can now read Isan scripts. Many people encourage their children to speak only central Thai language. Phra Ariyanuwat was among the few scholars who saw the urgency of preserving the language and literature. He transcribed more than two hundred Isan literary works from ancient Isan Thai noi script recorded on palm-leaf texts and published over ﬁfty stories in modern Thai script. Without his works, many young scholars interested in Isan literature would not have had any access to it, for Thai noi or Tham were not allowed to be taught at all.
8. Isan and Lao literature are almost identical in terms of pronunciation and stories as the people on both sides of the Mekong river are of the same ethnic group and formerly belonged to the same Lan Chang kingdom before undergoing several political divisions. Presently, only two significant distinctions exist between Isan and Lao literature. The Isan one is published in modern Thai script and the Lao in modem Lao script. Yet, the reading and pronunciation of Isan and Lao literature are identical. Jaruwan Thammawat does her studies of Isan and Lao literature from the published modern Thai and modern Lao versions, not from the palm-leaf manuscripts.
11. Phra Ariyanuwat did not omit any of the Isan words or grammatical structure when he transliterated the story from ancient Isan script into modern Thai. Thus, when a native Isan speaker reads the transliterated story, he or she reads the poetry with distinctively Isan tones and rhythms. Conversely, a native modern Thai speaker would not recognize such tones and rhythms and even some of the vocabulary.
12. Khlong saan is an Isan and Lao verse form with three to four columns in a line. Khlong saan requires restricted rhymes and tones. See Wajuppa Tossa, Phadaeng Nang Ai, pp. l8—20 and 9l-93.
13. It is interesting that this story is still chanted by a Buddhist monk or highly respected members of a community even today.
14. Both the Thai noi and Tham scripts and grammar are different from those of central Thai.
18. Parents should encourage children to speak Isan at home. Isan language and literature should he made available for students to learn. Isan children should be encouraged to learn to read and write Isan scripts for they represent the spoken language of Isan. To publish Isan literature in modern Thai script is good in that younger children can read and know the contents of their literature. However, that is not sufficient, because the younger generation of Isan do not speak Isan language and will not read Isan poetry with Isan tones and rhythms. Some of the Isan words or phrases may not even make sense if they are read with central Thai pronunciation.
For more on the sorry state of the written Isaan language, see this paper by John Draper titled Isan: The Planning Context For Language Maintenance And Revitalization. Here are a few quotes:
Although Isan language can still be seen on the walls of old Isan temples in the form of Thai Noi, a Sukothai-period Mon-Khmer orthography, (e.g., see Yenchuay, 2002), and a few Isan people can read it, very few now teach it.
This paper takes the standpoint that Isan as a language, and possibly as a culture, will, after a long process of language shift rather than a sudden reduction in a number of speakers, die in the next 100-200 years. Tossa (1999) is less optimistic, and argues that the next generation is crucial, with mutual incomprehensibility already manifesting itself in the case of urban and rural Isan, and significant culture death already occurring. Without a written language, the likelihood is that Isan will never attain “safe” status as an official regional language of Thailand, and consequently will be one of the 6,000 “local vernacular languages” that will die out (Kraus, 1992, cited in Ash, Little Doe Fermino & Hale 2001).
Those who can remember written Isan are few in number and passing away every day.
The difficulties in acquiring literacy in the Isan language are quite apparent. The lack of a living alphabet is one problem, resulting in a current Isan literacy rate of almost zero (although, it can be approximated in Thai).
This post has taken me far longer than I anticipated, so I am going to refer you to a previous post titled isaan dictionary.
Tagalog check please.?
I’m learning Tagalog from an audio CD which doesn’t have a written transcript. Here’s part of the audio that I need to check on Tagalog spelling/structures,etc. Maraming salamat.
For whom? – Para ka nino?
For whom is this? – Para ka nino ito?
Is this for me? – Para sa akin ba ito?
Yes, (this is) for you – Oo. Para sa iyo (ito)
This is for liwaiwai – Para kay Liwaiwai ito.
What’s that? – Ano iyon?
What – Ano
What’s this? – Ano ito?
I don’t know – Hindi ko alam
Give me peso, please – Bigyan mo ako nang peso, please.
How many? How many pesos? – Ilan? Ilang piso?
9 pesos only – Siyam na piso lang.
Here, I’m giving you. – Heto. Bigyan kita nang
100 – Isan daan
Here. I’m giving you 100. – Heto. Bigyan kita nang isan daan
100 peso – Isan daang piso
Thank you very much – Maraming salamat
Can you tomorrow? – Puede ka ba bukas?
I can. I can tomorrow – Puede. Puede ako bukas.
40 minutes ago – 4 days left to answer
some minor errors:
>”ka nino” should be “kanino”
>”that” can either be “iyan (if near the 2nd person)” or “iyon (far from both speakers)”
>”peso” is “piso”
>”nang” is followed by an event or time so it should have been “ng” which is used when followed by a thing
>”Ilang piso?” can just be translated as “magkano?” meaning “how much?”
>”isan daan” should be “isang daan”
>”isan daang piso” should be “isang daang piso”
>”puede” should be “puwede” or “pwede”
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